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How are solar panels made?

  • 2021-06-17 18:29:19
Green and environmentally friendly solar systems are currently widely used in various fields, bringing us electricity. The home solar system can bring electricity to the family and save costs. The portable solar system allows us to be outdoors, which can bring power to the mobile phone during the day without being in the dark at night.

I believe we will all be curious about the solar panels in the solar system. How the solar panels are made, we have summarized the secrets of making solar panels into 8 easy-to-understand steps!

Step 1: Collect the silicon-rock in its original form.
The main component of solar panels is silicon. It is a material used in various electronic products. Solar panels require the purest silicon, which is found in quartzite and quartzite gravel or sand. The raw materials are mainly from large quarries.

Step 2: Melt and purify the silica
Quartzite melts at high temperatures up to 2000°C. Sparks are emitted violently and must be handled with extreme care. The molten silicon is then transferred to a cooling device, where it is broken down into fragments. This pure silicon is called polysilicon. These fragments are a reflective silver metal, which is very conductive.

Step 3: Melt the purified silicon again to conduct electricity
A chemical substance called a boron dopant is added to the cooled pure polysilicon fragments. This ensures that the resulting silicon has a positive charge. It was transferred to a huge heating barrel and melted again. The temperature rises to 2500 °C, which requires two days of cooking time before the silicon mixing is complete. After completion, the silicon becomes a solid metal cube or cylinder and is sent to the next machine.

Step 4: Cut the thin silicon wafer
Load the pure silicon block on the cutting machine, and gently saw the silicon into thin paper wafers. These wafers undergo various chemical treatments to enable them to conduct electricity. They are thoroughly cleaned and do not contain any impurities during processing. Finally, blue-violet silicon nitride covers the silicon wafers, giving them their iconic blue appearance. The coating reduces the reflectivity of the wafers, helping them to collect more electricity from the sun.

Step 5: Connect the silicon wafer with conductive metal
Thin stripes of conductive metal are printed on the surface of the wafer, giving it the ability to collect the generated electricity. These are the tiny horizontal lines you see on all finished solar panels. The chip is now called a battery, ready to connect with other identical batteries to form a complete panel!

Step 6: Solder them all together
The battery is very delicate, so all welding is done by the machine. Thicker strips of conductive material are arranged in rows, connecting each battery to another battery. They are first connected in rows and then in columns. The average solar panel is 10 sections long and 6 sections wide. The total number of cells in this panel is approximately 60.

Step 7: Add glass and metal frame
After the batteries are assembled, they are sandwiched between two layers of protective glass to protect the fragile silica gel from the elements. A frame is added for structure and easy installation, and a small junction box is connected to the panel for seamless connection. Solar panels can now be connected to other panels and withstand various weather conditions.

Step 8: Final inspection and delivery
The finished solar panels are thoroughly cleaned and passed the final voltage test. After passing the inspection, it can be delivered to your door!

The science behind solar panels was once revolutionary, but now it is becoming the norm. With the help of automated robotics, we are manufacturing solar panels faster than ever. Future forecasts predict that solar panels will become cheaper and cheaper because they become easier to manufacture.

Do you want to try to make an interesting DIY solar panel? Check out this video to learn how to do it!
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